Although persistent gridlock tends to colour our view of 21st century transport, we can rest assured that progress was significantly more painful in the days of Shanks’ pony and single horsepower traction.
For those compelled to journey out of the county, a series of substantial natural barriers got in the way - Pennines to the west, Dales to the north, Peaks to the south and Moors to the east. The only flat escape routes took travellers towards Cleveland and Lincolnshire - let’s face it, neither place has unfettered appeal.
Conquering those formidible challenges says much for the endeavour and tenacity of our ancestors. And those served by JCBs and tarmacadam should note that parts of their ancient infrastructure still play an active role today.